Challengeing Words In The Article The Hindu | 28 Feb 2018
1)Effusive (adverb) (असंयत): adju-di-kate
Meaning – showing or expressing gratitude, pleasure, or approval in an unrestrained or heartfelt manner/expressing a lot of emotion
Synonyms – gushing, gushy, unrestrained, unreserved, extravagant, fulsome
Antonyms – restrained,moderate,sober
Example – The boy was effusive in his praise of the judges who awarded him the trophy.
2)Adrift (adjective) (भटकते हुए): ad-rift
Meaning – without purpose, direction, or guidance/failing to reach a target or winning position/(of a boat or its passengers) floating without being either moored or steered/
Synonyms -afloat, directionless, aimless, disoriented
Antonyms – purposeful, stable, determined, anchored.
Example -The scientist published the report about people in their twenties and how alienated and adrift they feel with no definite goals.
3)Frosty (adjective) (ठण्डा,रूखा): fros-ti
Meaning – a cold and unfriendly attitude
Synonyms – unfriendly, unsympathetic, inhospitable, unwelcoming, forbidding, hostile
Antonyms -warm, friendly, sympathetic, welcoming
Example – Someone will likely become frosty towards you if you are someone they do not like, and they will treat you with unkindness.
4)Entourage (noun) (घेरा): an-too-raz
Meaning – a group of attendants, associates or followers/a group of people attending or surrounding an important person.
Synonyms – staff, retinue, company, cortège, suite, attendant, escort
Antonyms – leader
Example -The famous businessman is always accompanied by an entourage that consists of his bodyguards, doctors, lawyers, and advisers.
5)Scramble (verb) (संघर्ष): es-cram-bal
Meaning – struggle or compete with others for something in an eager or uncontrolled and undignified way/a difficult or hurried clamber up or over something.
Synonyms – jostle, scuffle, scrimmage, tussle, struggle, contend
Antonyms – concord, harmony, peace
Example – The firms scrambled to win public-sector contracts.
6)Icy (adjective) (बहुत ठंडा,बहुत रूखा): i-c
Meaning – very unfriendly; hostile/very cold
Synonyms – unfriendly, unwelcoming, inhospitable, hostile, forbidding
Antonyms – friendly, amiable, favorable
Example -She looked at him with an icy glance.
7)Penultimate (adjective) (अंत से पहले): penal-ti-mate
Meaning – right before the final one; second last/something that is right before the last item in a series.
Synonyms – next to last, penult
Antonyms – First,foremost,initial
Example – The author should have ended the series with the penultimate novel instead of closing out the hero’s tale with this poorly written story.
Idioms and Phrases
8)Put off (phrasal verb) (स्थगन):
Meaning -to delay doing something, especially because you do not want to do it
Synonyms – adjourn, postpone, hold off, reschedule.
Antonyms -carry out,continue,accomplish,achieve
Example -You can’t put the decision offany longer of choosing your career.
9)Back to the drawing board (phrase) (फिर से शुरू करना):
Meaning – used to indicate that an idea, scheme, or proposal has been unsuccessful and that a new one must be devised/Revising something (such as a plan) from the beginning, typically after it has failed
Synonyms – begin again, make a fresh start
Example – The government must go back to the drawing board and review the whole issue of youth training.
10)The final straw (phrase) (असहनीय, सीमा):
Meaning – The last in a series of negative actions or events that makes the situation no longer tolerable
Synonyms -intolerable, limit, enough, unacceptable
Example – I’m already fed up with your selfishbehaviour, Riya, but if you disappointed me this time, well that will be the final straw!
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