Challenging Words In The Article The Hindu | 20 June 2018
1. Litany (noun): A tedious recital or repetitive series. / a long record. (एक लंबी और दोहराव सूची)
Synonyms: Recitation, Repetition, List, Catalogue, Inventory
Example: The criminal’s litany of crimes filled a huge folder in the prosecutor’s office.
2. Subversion (noun): The act of trying to destroy or damage an established system or government. (विनाश, राजद्रोह, तख़्ता पलट)
Synonyms: Insurrection, Sedition, Sabotage, Overthrow, Rebellion
Antonyms: Compliance, Conformity, Submission, Obedience
Example: He was arrested in parliament on charges of subversion for organizing the demonstration.
3. Fidelity (noun): Loyalty to a person, organization, or set of beliefs. (क्षणिक, शीघ्र व्यतीत होनेवाला)
Synonyms: Allegiance, Steadfastness, Fealty, Faithfulness
Antonyms: Disloyalty, Infidelity, Perfidiousness, Treachery, Unfaithfulness
Example: These speakers reproduce sound with such fidelity, you’d think you were actually in a concert hall.
4. Cogent (adjective): Persuasive and well expressed: (यक़ीनी, प्रभावशाली)
Synonyms: Convincing, Weighty, Compelling, Potent, Effective
Antonyms: un-compelling, Unconvincing, Unpersuasive, Inconclusive, Indecisive
Example: Because the child was so young, I worked hard to give her cogent answers to her questions.
5. Nugatory (adjective): Worth nothing or of little value: (व्यर्थ का, तुच्छ)
Synonyms: Trifling, Trivial, Insignificant, Worthless, Frivolous, Useless
Antonym: Substantial, Meaningful, Momentous, Important, Significant
Example: Whether this rug is red or green is nugatory to someone who is colour-blind.”
6. Caveat (noun): A warning or caution. (चेतावनी)
Synonyms: Admonition, Proviso, Condition, Stipulation, Provision, Clause
Antonyms: Heedlessness, Negligence, Ignorance, Indiscretion
Example: Since it was the young girl’s first time getting pulled over, the police officer let her off with the caveat that next time he would not be so lenient.
7. Veneer (noun): Something that hides something unpleasant or unwanted:/ a deceptively attractive external appearance. (व्यक्तित्व का झूठा आवरण, दिखावा, मुखावरण)
Synonym: Gloss, Mask, Disguise, Façade, Cover
Antonym: Reveal, Expose, Interior, Uncover
Example: She managed to hide her corrupt dealings under a veneer of respectability
8. Inequitable (Adjective): Not Fair: (अन्यायी, बेइंसाफ)
Synonyms: Biased, Partial, Prejudiced, Discriminatory, Unjust
Antonyms: Even, Fair, Balanced, Honest
Example: ‘It would be inequitable and inhumane to limit healthcare only to those who have a current or future economic benefit to society.’
9. Grim (adjective): Very serious or gloomy. (गंभीर, दुखद, मनहूस)
Synonyms: Stern, Gloomy. Grisly, Severe, Ghastly
Antonyms: Pleasant, Gentle, Cheerful, Benign
Example: Because the weather is grim, we are staying inside our home.
10. Concomitant (adjective): Something that happens with something else and is connected with it: (सहगामी, साथ में आने वाला)
Synonyms: Collateral, Coincident, Connected, Contemporaneous, Accompanying
Antonyms: Unrelated, Independent, Un-associated, Un-conneccted
Example: Loss of memory is a natural concomitant of old age.
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