Challenging Words In The Article The Hindu | 1 April 2018
1) Strenuous (adjective) (ज़ोरदार, जटिल) : es-tren-ous
Meaning – requiring or using great effort or exertion.
Synonyms- : arduous, difficult, hard, tough, taxing, demanding
Antonyms – easy, effortless, half-hearted, feeble
Example – In order to be in the military, one must be prepared for strenuous activity.
2) Scramble (संघर्ष) : es-cram-bal
Meaning – Noun – an eager or uncontrolled and undignified struggle with others to obtain or achieve something/a disordered mixture of things.
Verb – move hurriedly or clumsily from or into a particular place or position/struggle or compete with others for something in an eager or uncontrolled and undignified wa
Synonyms- : struggle, hurry, rush, race, scurry
Antonyms – unscramble
Example – When the manager retired, there was a scramble for his job.
3) Vulnerable (adjective) (भेद्य) : vul-nar-able
Meaning – exposed or in a position that cannot be completely defended
Synonyms- : endangered, unsafe, unprotected unguarded
Antonyms – well protected, invulnerable, resilient
Example – Because little kids have weak immune systems, they are very vulnerable to illness.
4) Breach (verb) (उल्लंघन) : breech
Meaning – a violation of an agreement, law, or code of ethics or conduct
Synonyms- : contravention, violation
Antonyms – noninfringement, observance
Example – According to the teacher-district contract, teachers who tutor their own students for money commit a breach of conduct.
5) Distort (verb) (बिगाड़ना, विकृत करना) : dis-tort
Meaning – to bring something out of shape or to misrepresent
Synonyms- : misrepresent, pervert, twist, falsify, misreport
Antonyms – accurate, correct, precise, exact, right,
Example – In order to not be recognized, the prank caller used technology to distort his voice.
6) Fallout (noun) (विवाद,किसी स्थिति या कार्रवाई के प्रतिकूल परिणाम) : fall-out
Meaning – the adverse results of a situation or action.
Synonyms- : outgrowth,consequence, offshoot, repercussion, result, after-effect, side effect
Antonyms – cause, origin, source
Example -He’s prepared to take calculated risks regardless of political fallout.
7) Inviolability (noun) (अनुल्लंघनीयता) : in-via-libil-ti
Meaning – never to be broken, infringed, ignored or dishonored/prohibiting violation; secure from destruction, violence, infringement, or desecration
Synonyms- : inviolate, sacred, sacrosanct
Antonyms- profane, appropriable, transferable
Example – Her parents made it clear that the rules of curfew follow inviolability.
Idioms & Phrases in the article
8) Come to naught (phrase) (पूरी तरह से असफल) :
Meaning – To be totally unsuccessful or amount to nothing
Synonyms-: fruitless, fail, in vain
Antonyms – succeed, thrive, fruitful
Example – All those hours I spent researching my graduate thesis have come to naught.
9) Pull out all the stops (phrase) (कुछ हासिल करने के लिए एक बहुत ही काबिलेतारीफ प्रयास) :
Meaning – make a very great effort to achieve something.
Synonyms- : try hard, strive, endeavour
Antonyms – drop, give up, quit
Example -The whole team pulled out all the stopsto meet the deadline of the project.
10) Get at (phrasal verb) (तक पहुँचने में सफल होना) :
Meaning – to manage to reach or touch something/ to try to suggest something without saying it directly/to discover the true facts about something
Synonyms- : : access, gain access to, get to, reach, touch
Antonyms – exclusion, egress, dismissal
Example – I keep the sweets up here where the children can’t get at them.
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