Challenging Words In The Article The Hindu
1)Hitherto (adverb)(अब तक): Hether-to
Meaning – until now or until the point in time under discussion.
Synonyms – previously, formerly, earlier, so far, thus far, before
Antonyms – afterwards, later, subsequently hereupon, thereupon
Example – Before John learned to fly an aeroplane, he had hitherto been afraid of heights.
2)Dovish (adverb)(शांतिपूर्ण): do-vis
Meaning – supporting discussion or other peaceful solutions in political relationships rather than the use of force
Synonyms – peaceful, diplomatic, accommodating.
Antonyms -agitated, turbulent, disturbed
Example – Since becoming president in 1993 he has encouraged dovish leaders to move on the path to peace.
3)Incipient (adjective) (उत्पन्न होनेवाला) : in-sip-ent
Meaning – just beginning to appear or develop
Synonyms – initial, developing, growing.
Example – The best way to stop the disease from spreading is by identifying it while it is incipient.
4)Exemplify (verb) (उदाहरण देना) : exem-pli-fie
Meaning – to show or illustrate by example
Synonyms – illustrate, demonstrate, instance.
Antonyms – becloud, blur, cloud, darken, fog
Example – The citizenship trophies are presented to exemplify the best examples of good citizenship among the student body.
5)Stand pat (noun) (अटल होना) : stand-pat
Meaning – stick stubbornly to one’s opinion or decision.
Synonyms – holdout, resist, stay put, rigid, unyielding
Example -Head coach Tom Higgins is standing pat on his team and will go with the same 40 men he used last week.
6)Upshot (noun) – (परिणाम) : up-shot
Meaning -the final or eventual outcome or conclusion of a discussion, action, or series of events.
Synonyms – result, consequence, outcome, out-turn, effect, reaction
Antonyms – cause, origin, initial
Example – The upshot of the meeting was that he was elected chief economic officer of the company.
7)Hover (verb) (मंडराना) : ho-var
Meaning – to remain near a place or individual
Synonyms – drift, flicker, waver, poise, linger
Example – Because I was sick a lot when I was a child, my mother would always hover over me.
8)Loom (adjective) (असन्तुष्ट) : loom-ing
Meaning – (of an event regarded as threatening) seem about to happen/appearing as a visible thread
Synonyms – threaten,menace,impend,emerge
Example -There is a financial crisis looming in China.
9)Vigilance (noun) (जागरूकता) : vigi-lance
Meaning – the state of keeping a careful watch for danger
Synonyms – watchfulness, careful observation, surveillance, attentiveness, attention, alertness
Antonyms – inattentiveness,ignore,neglect
Example – Lack of vigilance caused the Titanic to crash into an iceberg that no one saw coming.
Phrases/Phrasal Verbs in the Article –
10)Keep something/someone in check (phrase) (नियंत्रित करना) :
Meaning -to control someone or something that might cause damage or harm to keep under control; curb/restrain, hold back.
Synonyms – curb,restrain,hold back,check
Antonyms – release,encourage
Example – You know, bats are actually good to have around because they keep the mosquitos in check.
11)In something’s/someone’s shadow (phrase) (कम ध्यान प्राप्त करना) :
Meaning -Given less attention or thought of as less notable, important, or successful compared to someone else.
Example – He’s been struggling to get out from under his father’s shadow during his political career.
12)Head off (phrasal verb) (रोकना) : head-of
Meaning – to prevent something from taking place
Synonyms – avoid, put an end to, stop, divert
Antonyms -allow, permit, promote
Example – The police acted quickly and managed to head off a violent confrontation.
13)Lay out (phrasal verb) (रूपरेखा) : lay-aaut
Meaning -to arrange something according to a detailed plan/to spread something out, or to arrange things so you can see them easily
Synonyms – outline, draw up, formulate.
Antonyms – disorganize
Example – They had already laid out a substantial sum for the weddings
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