‘The Hindu : Challenging Words in the Article –
1) Prognosis (noun) ( पूर्वानुमान) : prog-noh-sis
Meaning – the predicted outcome of a situation
Synonyms – forecast, prediction, projection.
Antonyms – hindsight, ignorance, thoughtlessness
Example – Due to the company’s financialprognosis, we will probably be one of top ten industries in less than three months.
2) Nascent (adjective) (आरम्भ होता हुआ) : nay-cent
Meaning – (especially of a process or organization) just coming into existence and beginning to display signs of future potential.
Synonyms – burgeoning,fledgling,blossoming
Antonyms – dying, shrinking, withering
Example – Although our nonprofit organization is nascent, we have already raised over a half a million dollars in four months.
3) Sanguine ( adjective) (आशावादी) : san-gwine
Meaning – optimistic, hopeful, or confident about the future
Synonyms – buoyant, confident, cheerful, cheery, bright, assured
Antonyms – pessimistic, gloomy
Example – The bank manager did not feelsanguine about recovering the loan.
4) Onus (noun) – (दायित्व) : o-nus
Meaning – the responsibility for something
Synonyms – responsibility, duty, burden.
Antonyms – irresponsibility , absurdity , lunacy
Example – It is the onus of the applicant to fill out the application details completely and correctly.
5) Calibrate (verb) (जांच करना) : cali-brate
Meaning -to quantify in a careful and detailed manner
Synonyms – assess,modify,regulate.
Antonyms – neglect, ignore
Example – Pesticide levels in food are simply too difficult to calibrate.
6) Mitigation (noun) (शमन,अल्पीकरण) : miti-gay-shun
Meaning – the action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something.
Synonyms – alleviation, reduction, diminution, lessening
Antonyms – intensification, boosting, sharpening, strengthening, augmentation
Example – Because the police force has done very little for the mitigation of crime in our neighbourhood, it is not safe to go out after dark.
7) Exemplary (adjective) (अनुकरणीय) : exem-ple-ri
Meaning – something so good that it is an example for others to follow
Synonyms – perfect, ideal/model, flawless.
Antonyms – deplorable, unworthy
Example – The men and women of the armed forces are exemplary citizens who put the needs of others before their own needs.
8) Vigilant (adjective) (जागरूक) : vigi-lant
Meaning – watchful, especially for danger or disorder
Synonyms – watchful, on the lookout, observant.
Antonyms – negligent, inattentive
Example – As the Secretary of Defense, it is your responsibility to remain vigilant to threats against Homeland Security.
9) Choke off (phrasal verb) (रोकना,बाधा डालना) : choke-off
Meaning – to stop or obstruct someone/something (positive) from happening.
Synonyms – terminate, impede, hinder, hamper, block
Antonyms – facilitate, help, further
Example – They warned the Chancellor that raising taxes in the Budget could choke off the recovery.
10) Paint the picture of (phrase) (वर्णन करना)
Meaning – to describe or show something in a particular way
Synonyms – tell, describe, outline.
Antonyms – distort, falsify, garble, misdescribe, misrepresent
Example – The statistics of Indian Economy do notpaint an optimistic picture.